Coal Chemicals

 

Name
Ammonium nitrate 

Molecular formula
H4N2O3  
Alias name
Colorless prismatic crystal or white fine granular crystal 
Application
Used as fertilizer, analytical reagent,oxidizing agent,pesticide agent, and cooling agent. And also used for producing nitrous oxide, fireworks, explosive and so on. 
Character
Colorless crystal or while grain. Tasteless. Decompose above 280℃. 
Production methods
There are two methods to produce Ammonium nitrate: neutralization method and conversion method. Conversion method is to use calcium nitrate, by-product in the process of producing nitric phosphate, as raw materials, by making it react with salvolatile solution, to prepare ammonium nitrate and precipitation of calcium carbonate. After filtered, the ammonium nitrate products are manufactured by filtrate or turn back to the producing system of nitric phosphate.
Neutralization reaction in neutralization method is conducted under the condition of normal pressure, additional pressure or vacuum. Normal pressure is adopted when there is inexpensive steam so as to save equipment investment and simplify the operation. Additional pressure is used to reclaim reaction heat and produce steam, which can be applied to pre-warm raw materials and to concentrate ammonium nitrate solution. When ammonia neutralizes nitric acid with concentration of 64%, every ton of it could produce steam as by-product for about 1 ton. Vacuum neutralization is combined with the production of ammonium nitrate crystal with similar equipment as saturation crystallizer of producing ammonium sulphate.
In industry, additional pressure neutralization methods is mostly used, which is operated under the condition of 0.4~0.5MPa and 175~180°C. The concentration of nitric acid is 50%~60%. Firstly, the ammonia is neutralize until its PH value reaches 3~4 in order to reduce the ammonia waste; then add ammonia to make the PH value reach 7 so as to get ammonium nitrate solution of 80%~87% concentration. Reclaimed steam is used to evaporate liquid ammonia or serves as the heat source of evaporating ammonium nitrate solution in vacuum condition. The thin ammonium nitrate solution after neutralization has concentration of 95~99% through vacuum evaporation or falling film evaporation, then it generates grains by use of different methods. Tower spray pelleting is the mostly applicable way in ammonium nitrate pelleting.  
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